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Characteristics Of Different Types Of Hydroelectric Generator sets

July 20, 2020

Characteristics of different types of generator sets
1. According to the different prime movers, it can be divided into:
  (1) Turbine generator: It is driven by a steam turbine, usually horizontal, with a hidden pole rotor.
  (2) Hydrogenerator: It is driven by a hydraulic turbine. For large and medium-sized hydroelectric generators, it is usually vertical, and the rotor is a salient pole.
  (3) Nuclear power generator: There is no essential difference from conventional thermal power plant steam turbine generators. There are two types of full speed and half speed.
  (4) Gas turbine generator: A rotary power machine that compresses and heats gas and expands it in a turbine to convert its thermal energy into mechanical energy.
   (5) Solar generator: It is a way of generating electricity that directly converts light energy into electrical energy by using the photoelectric effect generated when the photon impacts the atoms when the sun shines on silicon and other semiconductors.
  (6) Wind power generator: Wind power generation needs to be realized through the control device in time according to the change of wind power and electric energy demand.

  (7) Diesel generator: It is a generator set composed of a diesel engine and a generator and driven by a diesel engine. It is usually used as an independent power source or a backup power source for many occasions such as industrial and mining enterprises, vehicles and ships.

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2. According to different rotor forms, it can be divided into:
   (1) Salient pole generator: The rotor is a salient pole.
   (2) Hidden pole generator: The rotor is of hidden pole type.
  3. According to different cooling media and cooling methods, it can be divided into:
   (1) Air cooling: air cooling.
  (2) Full water cooling: The stator and rotor windings and stator core are all water-cooled, and the current maximum single unit capacity has reached 1200MVA.
  (3) Full hydrogen cooling: The stator winding and rotor winding are cooled by hydrogen surface or internal cooling, and the stator core is hydrogen cooled. Usually the stator and rotor above 200MW adopt hydrogen internal cooling, and the maximum single unit capacity has reached 880MVA.
   (4) Water hydrogen hydrogen: water cooling in the stator winding, hydrogen cooling in the rotor winding, hydrogen cooling in the stator core. Its single machine capacity can reach 1200MVA, and large generators widely use this cooling method.
   (5) Water, water and hydrogen: The stator and rotor windings are cooled in water, and the stator core is hydrogen cooled. The maximum single unit capacity has reached 1700MVA.
  (6) Water, water and air (dual water internal cooling): The stator and rotor windings are cooled in water, and the stator core is air cooled. The maximum single unit capacity has reached 600MVA. With the continuous development of the power system capacity, the single generator capacity is required to increase. As the capacity of a single machine increases, the cooling medium, cooling method, and materials used in the motor also need to be continuously developed. In terms of cooling medium, cheap air was first used, and then hydrogen, water and oil were used. In terms of cooling methods, it has developed from external cooling to internal cooling with better cooling effects. The main advantages of air cooling are cheap, simple and safe. Since the open air cooling system is easy to make the insulation dirty, a closed cycle forced air cooling system is generally used. However, the air cooling efficiency is poor and the friction loss is large. Compared with air, hydrogen has lighter weight and good thermal conductivity (hydrogen at 3 absolute atmospheres has a thermal conductivity 3 times that of air). The hydrogen-cooled motor can reduce the total loss by 30% to 40%, so the efficiency can be improved. However, the use of hydrogen cooling has the disadvantages of being explosive and adding a complicated hydrogen production system. Water (condensed water is generally used) has high thermal conductivity, its relative thermal conductivity is 125 times larger than air, and it has the advantages of stable chemical performance and no burning. However, after adopting water cooling, there are also disadvantages such as easy water leakage and the need to add a water system.
  4. According to different spindle installation methods, it can be divided into:
  (1) Horizontal installation: The turbine generator has a small number of poles because the speed is as high as 3000r/min. The rotor adopts hidden pole type and horizontal installation.
  (2) Vertical installation: Due to the low speed (generally below 500 r/min), the hydro-generator has a large number of poles. The rotor adopts salient pole and vertical installation.
   5. According to the different body structure, it can be divided into:
   (1) Rotating armature type: The armature rotates.
  (2) Rotating magnetic pole type: magnetic pole rotation