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Daily Operation and Maintenance of Hydropower Plants And the Causes of Common Problems

September 4, 2020

Daily operation and maintenance work
1 Check the lubrication situation of various places during each shift.
2 To avoid mechanical damage, the governor must not be opened at will or stay in the open position.
3 When cleaning the governor, oil pressure device, hydraulic pump station, and gravity fuel tank, use kerosene and cotton cloth to clean it, not with broken cotton yarn.
4 For the oil used in the speed control system and the shaft housing system, during the initial operation, depending on the impurities and water in the oil, consider replacing the oil or carefully filtering the crude oil to remove the sediment and water in the oil.
5 Attention should be paid to maintain the normal oil volume of the hydraulic equipment, and add new oil when necessary.
6 In the initial operation, the oil filter should be cleaned whenever shifts are changed.
7 Pay attention to the volume of compressed air in the pressure oil tank. If the oil level rises, it means that the compressed air is reduced and the compressed air should be input in time.
8 Check the working conditions of the hydraulic pump station and the gravity fuel tank at any time, release the accumulated water in time, and observe the working condition of the flow indicator frequently.
9 Record the pressure, temperature and vibration values of various places shown on the instrument under various working conditions.
10 Pay attention to check whether there is water or air leakage at the parts and the handle.
11 Pay attention to check the leakage and oil leakage of the spindle seal.
12 Pay attention to check the oil leakage of the servomotor.
13 Attention should be paid to whether there is abnormal noise or vibration when the unit is running, and whether there is any looseness, water leakage, damage, etc. of the connecting parts. If there is any, it should be checked and repaired in time and shut down if necessary.
14 Pay attention to check the bearing operation, whether the bearing temperature and lubricating oil in the bearing is sufficient, and change the oil regularly.
15 Pay attention to check the water flow at the outlet of the draft tube to see if there is any oil slick to estimate the sealing condition of the runner blades.
16 Pay attention to check the oil receiver for oil leakage.
17 The above inspections must be recorded.
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Maintenance work basis
1 The decrease in efficiency and strength of the turbine may generally be caused by one or more of the following reasons
1.1 Wear caused by sand or other corrosive substances in water.
1.2 Cavitation phenomenon.
1.3 Stress fatigue phenomenon.
1.4 Material defects not found in advance.
1.5 Improper operation and maintenance.
1.6 Failure of electrical and mechanical connections.
2 In order to provide a basis for maintenance work, some observations and inspections should be made, which mainly include the following:
2.1 During the operation at rated speed, whether there is any collision, abnormal noise, excessive vibration or temperature rise in the operation of all mechanical parts; oil and water leakage; lubrication, cooling and drainage systems, water, oil level, flow, pressure, inlet and outlet Temperature; governor and related hydraulic system; comparison between the setting value of the protection device action and the initial value; the output and flow under load and no-load (or the relative flow proportional to the flow); the water head and guide vane opening degree.
2.2 The maximum instantaneous speed and pressure changes during the transition; the pressure changes of the hydraulic system, the closing time of the guide vanes and the sectional closing valve, the unit downtime; whether there are abnormal phenomena (such as: collision, abnormal noise, transient vibration And leakage).
2.3 In the static state, the pressure, lubricating oil or oil level and temperature of the speed control system; comparison of the closing positions of the guide vanes, runner blades, inlet and outlet gate valves or various valves, governors and servomotors with the initial values.
2.4 During maintenance, inspection and repair, wear, damage and cracks at parts that are not usually accessible (for example: runners, spindle seals, other coupling devices of anti-wear ring bearings, etc.)