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April 29, 2020
The first hydroelectric power plant in the world was built in France in 1878 and used hydroelectric generators to generate electricity. Until now, the manufacture of hydroelectric generators has been called the "Crown" of French manufacturing. But as early as 1878, the hydro-generator had already had a preliminary design. In 1856, the Union DC commercial DC generator came out. In 1865, Frenchman Caspian and Italian Marco created the idea of combining a DC generator with a turbine to generate electricity. In 1874, the Piroschi of the Russian Rose also proposed a design to turn water energy into electricity. In 1878, the British Gragside Manor and Sirmito near Paris, France, built the world's earliest hydroelectric power plants, respectively, and the first DC generators appeared. In 1891, the first modern hydroelectric generator (Larfen Hydrogenerator) was born in Ruitu Olikon. From 1891 to the present, there have been tremendous advances in hydro-generator technology for more than 100 years.
Initial stage (1891-1920)
For quite some time in the early days of the birth of hydroelectric generators, people connected a common DC generator or alternator to the hydraulic turbine to form a set of hydroelectric generators. It was only when the Larffen hydropower plant was built in 1891 that a specially designed hydro-generator appeared. Since the early hydropower plants were small and isolated power plants, the power supply range was very small, so the parameters of the generator were very chaotic, and the voltage and frequency were varied. Structurally, the hydro-generators are mostly horizontal. In addition, most of the hydroelectric generators in the initial stage were DC generators, and single-phase AC, three-phase AC, and two-phase AC hydroelectric generators appeared later.
The well-known hydroelectric generator manufacturing companies in the initial stage include BBC, Oelikon, Siemens, Westinghouse (WH), Edison, and GE. The machine has a 300hp three-phase AC turbine generator (1891) of the Laufen hydropower plant, a 750kW three-phase alternator (made by GE Corporation, 1893) of the Folsom hydropower station in the United States, and the Adams hydropower plant on the American side of Niagara Falls. 5000hp two-phase AC turbine generator (1894), Niagara Falls Canada-side Ontario power station 12MNV? A and 16MV? A horizontal turbine generator (1904-1912), and GE Corporation's 40MV? A Hydraulic generator. The Swedish Hellsjon Hydropower Station, built in 1893, installed four 344kV? A three-phase AC horizontal hydroelectric generating units. The generators were manufactured by Swedish General Electric Company (ASEA).
Hydrogenerator of German Laufen Hydropower Plant
In 1891, the World Exposition was held in Frankfurt, Germany. In order to show the transmission and application of alternating current at the meeting, the organizers of the meeting installed a set of hydroelectric generating units in the Portland cement plant in Larffen, Germany, 175km away. , For the Expo lighting and driving a 100hp three-phase induction motor. The hydraulic generator of Laufen Power Station was designed by the chief engineer of Ruitu Olikon Brown and manufactured by Olikon. The generator is a three-phase horizontal type, 300hp, 150r / min, 32 poles, 40Hz, and the phase voltage is 55 ~ 65V. The outer diameter of the generator is 1752mm and the core length is 380mm. The stator slot number of the generator is 96, the closed slot (called the hole at the time), each pole and each phase is a copper rod, the wire rod slot is insulated with a 2mm asbestos plate, and the end is a bare copper rod; the rotor is embedded ring Claw pole poles of the excitation winding. The generator is driven by a vertical turbine through a pair of bevel gears, and is excited by another small DC turbine generator. The efficiency of the generator reaches 96.5%.
The successful operation and transmission of the hydroelectric generator of Laufen Power Station to Frankfurt is the first industrial test of three-phase current transmission in human history.It is a breakthrough in the practical application of alternating current, especially three-phase alternating current. The turbo generator is also the world's first three-phase hydro-generator.
These are the design and development of the hydro generator in the first thirty years. In fact, looking at the development process of hydro-generator technology, the hydro-generator is a development stage roughly every 30 years. That is, 1891-1920 was the initial stage, 1921-1950 was the stage of technological growth, 1951-1984 was the stage of rapid development, and 1985-2010 was the stage of steady development. In the next article we will continue to accept the development process of hydroelectric generators.