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May 8, 2020
In the last article, we introduced a resolution for direct AC power. This "war" ended with AC power winning. AC power also gained the spring of market development and began to capture the market that was previously occupied by DC power. After this "Great War", direct alternating current competed at the Niagara Falls Adams Hydropower Station.
In 1890, the United States built the Niagara Falls Adams Hydropower Station. In order to review various AC and DC schemes, a national international Niagara Power Commission was established. Both Westinghouse and GE participated in the competition. Finally, Westinghouse, with its rising reputation after the victory of the AC-DC battle and the talents of a group of excellent scientists such as Tesla, plus the successful experiment of AC transmission in Great Barrington in 1886, and the successful operation of the alternator of the Larffen power plant in Germany And finally won the manufacturing contract for 10 sets of 5000p AC turbine generators. In 1894, the first 5000p turbine generator at the Niagara Falls Adams Power Station was born at Westinghouse. In 1895, the first unit was put into operation. In the autumn of 1896, the two-phase AC power generated by the generator was transformed into three phases through a Scot transformer, and then transmitted to Baffalo, 40 km away, through a three-phase transmission system.
The hydroelectric generator of the Adams power station in Niagara Falls was designed by Westinghouse Chief Engineer Lam (B.G. Lamme, 1884-1924) based on Tesla's patent. His sister B. Lamme (Betha Lamme) also participated in the design work. The unit is driven by Furnelon turbine (dual runner, no draft tube), and the generator is a vertical two-phase synchronous generator, 5000hp, 2000V, 25Hz, 250r / mln. The generator has the following characteristics;
(1) Large capacity and long size. Prior to this, the unit capacity of the hydroelectric generator did not exceed 1000hpa. It can be said that the 5000 bp hydroelectric generator at the Adar Power Station in Niagara Falls was not only the largest hydroelectric generator in the world at that time, but also a key first step in the development of the hydroelectric generator from small to large scale.
(2) For the first time, the armature conductor is insulated with mica.
(3) Some basic structural forms of current hydroelectric generators are adopted, such as vertical umbrella-shaped closed structure. The first 8 units have a structure where the magnetic poles are stationary outside (the pivot type), and the latter two are changed to the current general magnetic poles rotating inside (the rotating field type) structure.
(4) Unique excitation method. The first one uses the DC power from the nearby DC turbine generator for excitation. After two or three years, all units are switched to small DC turbine generators as the exciter.
(5) The frequency of 25 Hz was used. At that time, the American Ying rate was very complicated, from 16.67 Hz to 1000 FHz. After analysis and compromise, 25 Hz was used. This frequency has become a standard frequency in certain parts of the United States for quite a long time.
(6) The electricity generated by the previous power generation equipment is mainly used for lighting, while the electricity generated by the Niagara Falls Adams power station is mainly used for industrial power.
(7) For the first time, three-phase AC long-distance commercial power transmission was realized, which played a role in the demonstration and wide application of three-phase AC power. Adams Hydropower Station 10 5000bp turbine generator units were fully updated after 10 years of operation, and 10 units All were replaced with new units of 1000hp and 1200V, and another 5000p new unit was installed, so that the total installed capacity of the power station reached 105000hp.
In the battle of direct exchange of hydroelectric generators, the final victory was AC. Since then, direct current has been badly hurt, and alternating current has started to sing in the market, which also sets the tone for the future development of hydroelectric generators. However, it is worth mentioning that a significant feature of the initial stage is that the DC turbine generator is widely used. At that time, there were two types of DC turbine motors: low-voltage generators, two generators connected in series, and one turbine driven . The second type is a high-voltage generator, which is a double-pivot double-pole generator that shares a shaft. We will introduce it in the next article.