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April 27, 2020
1. Management of hydro turbine generator
In the normal operation of hydropower plants, the turbines often lead to accidents due to negligence. You must be vigilant, pay close attention to the various turbines in operation and adjust them in time, and you should immediately deal with the problems you find to ensure the safe operation of the hydropower plant. Generally, the following tasks should be done.
The first one is to monitor and regulate the flow of water. It is required that the inlet and outlet water flow of a hydropower plant must be smooth and unobstructed. The inlet of the axial flow turbine and the tubular turbine and the outlet of the draft tube should be submerged. If a large number of bubbles and eddies are found, the cause should be found and dealt with in time.
The second is to monitor the vibration and displacement of the machine.
The third is to monitor and adjust the turbine speed and generator frequency. When the user load of the hydropower plant changes, the generator running alone should adjust the opening of the guide vane (or gate) in time to ensure that the unit operates at the rated speed.
The fourth is to monitor and adjust the voltage of the generator. When the voltage of the generator changes within the range of ±5% of the rated voltage of 400 volts, it can run continuously at the rated power. If the voltage of the generator is too high or too low, it will affect the user's electricity. At this time, it should be adjusted in time to keep the voltage stable. Fifth, monitor the generator current does not exceed the allowable value. The rated current value of the generator stator and rotor indicated on the generator nameplate refers to any phase of the generator rotor and stator when the ambient air temperature is 35 ℃ The current should not exceed the value, if the current is too large, the coil insulation will be burned due to overheating.
Sixth, monitoring the operating temperature of various equipment, monitoring the bearing temperature of various mechanical components and the heating of various electrical equipment is an important task in operation. Practice has proved that the damage to the insulation of transmissions such as bearings and electrical equipment is mostly caused by excessive temperatures, so the temperature of these components during operation cannot exceed the specified value. In general, the unheated machine casing and insulation skin can be touched by hand to estimate the heat. Such as bearing shell, generator shell, etc., when you feel hot, it means that the actual temperature has reached the maximum allowable temperature.
Seventh, pay attention to the abnormal sound and smell of various turbines. When the turbines and generators of the hydropower plant are in normal operation, they should emit a normal machine rhythm sound, the transformer should emit a "buzzing" magnetization sound, and the bearings in normal operation also have a uniform "buzzing" sound. If abnormal sound (friction sound, cracking sound, etc.), sparks, or smell of burning insulation is found, prompt measures should be taken.
2. Maintenance of hydro turbine generator
Briefly introduce the maintenance operations of several devices. The first equipment is the sealing equipment of the hydraulic turbine. The operation is as follows: the sealing packing close to the turbine shaft (such as the stuffing box of the water blocking sleeve at the outlet of the draft tube) should not be too loose or too tight. It should be checked and adjusted in time. There should be a slight drip after compaction; during operation, use soap bubbles to check the inspection hole of the draft tube, the air supply hole and the joint surface of the pipeline for leaks. If there is a leak, the seal should be tightened or replaced; after the seal packing is worn or hardened , Should be replaced in time.
The second device is the bearing of the turbine. The operation is as follows: open the bearing box (cover), check for water, ash, and sand intrusion, and remove it immediately; check the bearing for oil leakage during operation, and add lubricating oil in time, especially the bearing of the underwater part, monthly Calcium-based butter should be added once.
The third device is the transmission belt. The operation is as follows: the belt must be kept clean. If it is out of service for a long time, it should be removed from the pulley; be careful not to corrode the oil (diesel, engine oil) that corrodes the bite. 1. Check whether the contact of the belt buckle is damaged, and repair or replace it in time. The fourth device is the slip ring and brush of the generator. The operation is as follows: pay attention to check whether there is spark on the slip ring when the generator is running. The black marks on the slip ring can be erased with gasoline. If there are obvious sparks under the entire edge of the brush, it should be repaired in time; pay attention to check the brush In case of sparks and wear during operation, if the wear should be replaced in time (the same brand should be used), and be ground with fine glass sandpaper (No. 00) on the slip ring to ensure good contact, and use the air box to blow off the carbon in the generator Powder; often pay attention to adjust the spring pressure on the brush, the pressure is too large, too small or one big one should be adjusted in time.