Troubleshooting Common Faults Of Hydroelectric Generating Sets
The common faults of micro-hydropower are manifested in two aspects. On the one hand, the abnormal phenomena of non-curved users when using electricity, such as the unit not generating electricity, power outages during use, voltage reduction, and unstable voltage; etc. On the other hand, functional operation Abnormal phenomena such as high heat from generators and abnormal noises from turbines.
Once a fault is found, the gate or valve should be closed in time and stopped for inspection. When checking, you should check them one by one as described below. After troubleshooting, you can use it again.
1. The unit does not generate electricity
Phenomenon description: When the user opens the valve or gate, it is found that the unit does not generate electricity, and the electrical appliances cannot be used (such as the light is off).
Check the diversion canals and diversion gates for blockages. You can check from the tail water outlet. If the water output is smaller than the normal operation of the unit, there must be a blockage. When the line is blocked, if you cannot remove it, you should remove the flange or other connection between the start-up group and the water pipe, and then take the blockage from the water pipe.
Check the electrical equipment and lines for short circuits and disconnections. Have an electrician check them.
Check the generator windings for short circuits or burnout. If it is burnt out, replace it with a new one.
For capacitor-excited asynchronous generators, the residual magnetism may disappear or the capacitor may be broken down. Use a dry cell in series on any winding and carry out magnetization for a few seconds. If power cannot be generated yet, replace the capacitor.
2. Power failure during use
Phenomenon description: The user suddenly loses power during use, and the consumer cannot use it.
A short circuit in an electrical appliance or power line may cause the fuse to blow. Check the fuse. If it is blown, replace it with a new one.
Units with air switches may trip due to short circuit overload. Check the wiring or switch off some electrical appliances.
Check whether there is any foreign body clogging in the pollution barrier, water pipe, valve, etc.
Check whether the electrical equipment and lines are disconnected.
Check whether the windings of the generator set are open or burnt out. If it is burnt out, replace the new coil.
Phenomenon description: The user obviously feels that the voltage is low during use.
It may be an overload. Check that the charge exceeds the power indicated on the nameplate. During the inspection, turn off some electrical appliances. If the voltage rises, it indicates an overload.
Check whether there is any debris at the water inlet, because debris will block part of the water flow, affect the output of the turbine, and reduce the voltage.
Units with belt rotation, check whether the belt is too loose. If it is too loose, the belt will slip, the unit will generate insufficient power, and the voltage will drop.
Phenomenon description: In the process of using, the user's voltage suddenly rises and falls, which is manifested by the electric light flickering.
Check if there is a high-power consumer in use.
Units with mechanical voltage stabilizing mechanism may be rusted by the regulating mechanism.
If it is a trough unit, the water in the cement volute may be too splashed.
5.The generator generates high heat
Phenomenon description: During the operation of the unit, the generator shell was touched by hand, and it was found to be very hot, and the hand could hardly stay on it for a few seconds.
Poor heat dissipation, check for cover on the generator. It is strictly forbidden to cover anything during the operation of the unit.
It may be that the unit is self-bound due to overload, and some electrical appliances are turned off.
If it is a three-phase generator, the same current may be unbalanced, and the load distribution is adjusted so that the load of each phase is approximately equal.
6. The turbine has abnormal noise
Phenomenon description: During operation, the turbine obviously emits different sounds during normal operation. Check whether the rotating parts are rubbed. If the bearing is loose, it must be replaced with a new one. Check the turbine for foreign objects.
（We just briefly introduced some fault self-removal of small hydropower station equipment. Have your hydropower stations encountered these problems? If your hydropower station encounters these problems or some other problems, you are welcome to send us an email, and we will try our best to help you.）